com - Examples, The best For Learn web development Tutorials,Demo with Example! Hi Dear Friends here u can know to Nested List from JSON Example. A JSON object can arbitrarily contains other JSON objects, arrays, nested arrays, arrays of JSON objects, and so on. Ok I tried data. I believe the pandas library takes the expression "batteries included" to a whole new level (in a good way). But I’m not concerned about getting display_name, so just the values of first of columns, second of columns data, etc. In standard SQL, as in the example above, JavaScript functions operate on values. Return value. There are differences in the types that the Stream Analytics query language and JavaScript support. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. stringify() function:. JSON stands for ‘JavaScript Object Notation‘ is a text-based format which facilitates data interchange between diverse applications. I've tried using jsonlite::flatten(), but it doesn't seem to do anything:. There is no theoretical limit to how deep JSON objects can be nested, but there usually is a practical limit based on the decoder being used. flatten: automatically flatten nested data frames into a single non-nested. One option would be to load the JSON into a RDBMS and process it from within there, running SQL queries to extract the data required. There's an API you're working with, and it's great. We will get back the raw JSON from the files. Personally, I've had a JSON doc I'd like to fetch fields from but I didn't want to try to figure out the JSONPath or document structure, I just wanted to get. json and loads its. To maintain the association between each flattened value and the other fields in the record, the FLATTEN function copies all of the other columns into each new record. Serialization is just as easy:. JSONPath expressions always refer to a JSON structure in the same way as XPath expression are used in combination with an XML document. In DataPower services, you can specify JSON as the request type or the response type. How would you solve this?. I have a deep nested json data that i have successfully loaded in a store, using multiple associated models. json_normalize can be applied to the output of flatten_object to produce a python dataframe: flat = flatten_json(sample_object2) json_normalize(flat). Flattening somebody already helped me out with here. Let us see the various ways of creating JSON objects using JavaScript. It is described as in RFC 4627 standard. json(jsonRDD). I have a nested JSON data which I am reading through KAFKA to writing to Elastic using nifi. JSON flatten to nested form fields. (I have to add the tez switch since I did not configure my cluster to use this engine by default). jeremiahfernandezzzz. It will also clean up your JSON and show a data viewer to assist you while you are developing. It's not massively hard but took a bit of fiddling since the online docs stop a little short. The following function has you covered for this task. Now, after the very futile example which accompanied the introduction to JavaScript Object Notation in my last post (by the way, I forgot to mention that this is what the fancy acronym stands for, but I'm sure you already knew that), let's go straight to the fun part, and see how we can leverage the flexibility of JSON (and ASP. The properties are converted to field names, the field values are converted to property values, and the methods are removed. NET solutions by far, especially for dynamic JSON parsing which isn't supported in any of the native. From our blog Sqlify's New Pay As You Go Pricing Convert between CSV, JSON and SQL files in PHP using the Sqlify API Convert and flatten JSON to CSV or SQL using JSON path expressions One-liner to migrate data from MongoDB to MySQL from your shell Uploading a big file to the Sqlify API in chunks. JSONLint says I have valid JSON, and I'm able to get and use other parts of this JSON file (the "Charts" section, but not th… I'm trying to get the Store Latitude and Longitude values from the. JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a lightweight data-interchange format. Extracting data from nested JSON array Hi Example of the JSON file I'm dealing with is here Apparently the JavaScript step has only extracted 1 row. NET object property names to the JSON property names and copies the values for you. One benefit of retaining the JSON structure is that when formats change, you don’t have to recreate and re-populate large tables. Arrays in JSON are almost the same as arrays in JavaScript. In this article, we'll cover: JSON data structures; How nested structures are deconstructed. NET objects into their JSON equivalent and back again by mapping the. When working with nested arrays, you often need to expand nested array elements into a single array, or expand the array into multiple rows. I am receiving the JSON formatted string from a web service over the Internet. Print the flattened list. toJSON — this produces a JSON string representing your view model’s data. Flatten nested javascript array How do you flatten array in javascript. Flatten JSON in Python. Flatten Nested JSON Objects with Segment and Mammoth Mammoth is a code-free data preparation and discovery platform. April 21, 2018, at 8:30 PM is it possible with javascript and if yes what is the code for rotating a logo at constant rpm. Build lightning fast, interactive client side templates using nothing but Javascript. Flatten a Nested Array in JavaScript with Array. The quickest method of converting between JSON text and a. The problem: frequently in client-side…. simplifyMatrix. You can use the "subPaths" constructor option to tell the JSON Data Set to include these nested structures when it flattens the top-level JSON object, or the data selected by the "path" constructor option. The purpose of this article is to share an iterative approach for flattening deeply nested JSON objects with python source code and examples provided, which is similar to bring all nested matryoshka dolls outside for some fresh air iteratively. Re: Accessing nested JSON using AJAX Posted 16 April 2018 - 10:35 PM Yes, something like that should be obvious: data is an object with a number of properties, which themselves may be objects or arrays, so knowing the exact structure allows you to get the part(s) you want in this way. LINQ to JSON. For explaining how we convert the json data into html table using javascript & jquery we have created a json file that contains the below json data. We will get back the raw JSON from the files. how to read a. Make JSON greppable! gron transforms JSON into discrete assignments to make it easier to grep for what you want and see the absolute 'path' to it. It eases the exploration of APIs that return large blobs of JSON but have terrible documentation. Alternatively, you can flatten nested arrays of objects as requested by Rogerio Marques in Github issue #3. How to update a nested JSON key. The following is what I came up with. Once we know which objects should become features we have the option to flatten any nested properties within those objects into feature attributes and geometry for a more relational structure typical of GIS. ObjGen uses a simple shorthand syntax to generate rich and complex JSON data. Flattening typically involves taking nested parent-child JSON objects and creating a parent. Questions: I have a situation where multiple Singles are nested together. When it comes to JSON APIs is it good practice to flatten out responses and avoid nested JSON objects? As an example lets say we have an API similar to IMDb but for video games. This post will underwhelm most of you, but people do this (I've seen it, and I caught myself doing it today while waiting for my part of a conference call). It is easy for humans to read and write. stringify() method converts a JavaScript object or value to a JSON string, optionally replacing values if a replacer function is specified or optionally including only the specified properties if a replacer array is specified. [Json] On flat vs nested JSON encoding style. The flatten() method takes nested arrays and "flattens" them all into one array. Enter your JSON and your query and immediately see the extracted results in the browser. Hi , i am new to ExtJS and stuck at a problem. Flatten JSON in Python. The standard library module json provides functionality to work in JSON. Excel-jSon-Excel in one line of code Before we get started though, I set myself the challenge that these classes should be able to populate an entire worksheet from a web service, or to convert an entire worksheet into jSon in one line of code. Hi vasu, Thanks for your post. Strings are always enclosed in double quotes, booleans are represented as true and false. JSON data looks much like a dictionary would in Python, with keys and values. The numbers in the table below specifies the first browser version that fully supports the JSON. Serialization is just as easy:. But for the next step, i am unable to display this data in a simple grid, please help. This tutorial teaches you how to create and use JavaScript multidimensional arrays. When using JSON with a statically typed language, there is a huge bonus if your structure maps into your types. The JSON_TABLE function was first introduced in Oracle 12. JavaScript 获取JSON属性值 通过串联起来的点操作符或中括号操作符来访问JSON对象的嵌套属性。 下面是一个嵌套的JSON对象:. Objects are name – value pairs. For example, I have tweets in JSON format and I would like to apply your code to them since Tweets in JSON have several nested JSON objects. The preferred query syntax for BigQuery is standard SQL. It's very simple and easy way to Edit JSON Data and Share with others. Code #1: Let's unpack the works column into a standalone dataframe. JavaScript is amazing, we all know that already. In this Post We Will Explain About is Create Nested List From JSON using javascript With Example and Demo. ObjGen uses a simple shorthand syntax to generate rich and complex JSON data. Using pandas and json_normalize to flatten nested JSON API response I have a deeply nested JSON that I am trying to turn into a Pandas Dataframe using json_normalize. The following example will show you how to parse a nested JSON object and extract all the values in JavaScript. JSON is lightweight and language independent and that is why its commonly used with jQuery Ajax for transferring data. Welcome on Pakainfo. id join events e on e. I’m trying to deserialize JSON into a somewhat complicated structure. Join the community of millions of developers who build compelling user interfaces with Angular. Save Your Code. jq Manual (development version) For released versions, see jq 1. JSON is often used for serializing and transmitting structured data over a network connection and therefore is commonly used in AJAX, Web 2. When you are loading data from JSON files, the rows must be newline delimited. Maximum number of nested objects to flatten. map after converting to hash & hash. JSON (this is a portion of the nested json it will not always be in the same depth is there a way to code for any type of nested json that will read at all levels). Previous: Write a JavaScript program to find duplicate values in a JavaScript array. It's a little weird because the array elements have different elements. For many legacy SQL queries, BigQuery can automatically flatten the data. B1" : "Test1" and "A1. Let us see the various ways of creating JSON objects using JavaScript. I asked myself how I could do that using PHP. Hi @Sakthivel Working with JSON objects within a JavaScript policy in Apigee Edge is identical to how you handle it in a regular JavaScript program. max_level: int, default None. Grouping data is an important capability to have when doing data analysis. com - Examples, The best For Learn web development Tutorials,Demo with Example! Hi Dear Friends here u can know to Nested List from JSON Example. Flatten nested javascript array How do you flatten array in javascript. I'm not sure if you want that? DataTables needs the data in an array for multiple rows - it will not accept an object, so if the JSON is only an object and each property at the top level is an array, you would need to do has you have done and reformat the data. Once we know which objects should become features we have the option to flatten any nested properties within those objects into feature attributes and geometry for a more relational structure typical of GIS. Problem: How to flatten the Array of Array or Nested Array DataFrame column into a single array column using Spark. JSON is a format for data exchange that is both human and machine-readable. As you can see, array_flatten() is used recursively to. However, one of the column that I want to have in the table is nested in JSON. tldr; safely access nested objects in JavaScript in a super cool way. assign() method is used to copy the values of all enumerable own properties from one or more source objects to a target object. After some discussion in the comments, it looks like the original question actually meant: “How do I take a JSON object and transform it into dropdown menu?” I’ve written some commented code here: Rendering JSON as nested dropdown menu. Discussion To get the job done, the solution. The value returned by reduce() would be that of the last callback invocation (10). April 21, 2018, at 8:30 PM is it possible with javascript and if yes what is the code for rotating a logo at constant rpm. It is conveniently available in JSON form, which Mathematica interprets as replacement rules. Here is the structure:. How to parse JSON is explained in the question Parse JSON in JavaScript?. I am trying to call a web API that is expecting an object that will model this JSON object {"assignment_scores": {"assignment_score":. I'm all for using libraries to do things that plain JS doesn't. Basic Example. 1 introduces new features that are compatible with JSON-LD 1. Or, if your JSON is a server response, you don't want the resulting Javascript code having to differ between object/array or not object/array. Often times, you will want to break apart the data by a categorical variable and look at statistics or details for each group. Accessing nested json objects is just like accessing nested arrays. In addition, we will introduce you to some of the most common PostgreSQL JSON operators and functions for handling JSON data. library(jsonlite) df <- fromJSON("test. Flexible Data Ingestion. Output JSON as embedded object. You can fully automate the JSON to CSV conversion process with Flexter our free JSON converter. Flatten javascript objects into a single-depth object - Object Flatten you would like to use rails as an api server from javascript / ajax. JavaScript is amazing, we all know that already. For more information about these issues and troubleshooting practices, see the AWS Knowledge Center Article I receive errors when I try to read JSON data in Amazon Athena. While browsing the MooTools 1. In the following example, the second object in the array has sub-array representing person skills. See for example Clarification on Resources Composed of Other Resources in the json:api forum for details on this topic. There are a lot of builtin filters for extracting a particular field of an object, or converting a number to a string, or various other standard. The nested functions are of the same level. April 21, 2018, at 8:30 PM is it possible with javascript and if yes what is the code for rotating a logo at constant rpm. We need to figure out how to decode this information and in this video we look at two strategies. I will show how we handle multi-level value extraction, potential inconsistencies in our data (i. JavaScript Flatten Nested Arrays with Recursion Theodore Anderson. In the following example 'vehicles' is a object which is inside a main object called 'person'. Reformatting nested JSON with JavaScript Part 1: and I had additional data which was nested within another array that I want to bring up a level to make it easier. Admittedly if you're parsing json that is unlikely, but this would be a fairly useful general utility to flatten all sorts of nested mappings. See the Pen JavaScript - Flatten a nested array - array-ex- 21 by w3resource (@w3resource) on CodePen. Each key/value pair is separated by a comma. In a nested data frame, one or more of the columns consist of another data frame. JSON Utils is a site for generating C#, VB. The JSON we're working with contains more than one level of information - dictionaries are nested at the top level. I have Java Iterator to traverse all the items of JSON but within iterator, it is not allowed to change the key name, how ever it is allowed to change the value of those keys. JSON is becoming the default when. Modify d3 visualization so that json file can be used. Photo credit to wikipedia. (I have to add the tez switch since I did not configure my cluster to use this engine by default). The transform needs to be instantiated and takes an options object as arguments containing: objects - Boolean, whether to flatten JSON objects or not. The quickest method of converting between JSON text and a. I am also attaching the JAVA class program that I am currently using but it only prints the first object and the values related to it. Flattening Nested Arrays. The JsonSerializer converts. This query returns a row for each element in the array. Initially it was made for JavaScript, but many other languages have libraries to handle it as well. By default _ is used to separate nested element. Available on the Visual Studio Marketplace. Puzzle Given an array of Integers that presents several levels of nesting, provide an algorithm to flatten the input array. Next Use Deserealize JasonArray Activity and pass the string as Jobj(“planAdminList”). If you click the save button, your code will be saved, and you get an URL you can share with others. If you work with JSON documents that are new to you, it can be very helpful to fully expand JSON to see at a glance what’s in there. As you can see, array_flatten() is used recursively to. A JSON object can arbitrarily contains other JSON objects, arrays, nested arrays, arrays of JSON objects, and so on. 5 - Duration: 24:17. NET JSON parsers. I am attaching the sample JSON file and the expected results. Keys must be strings, and values must be a valid JSON data type (string, number, object, array, boolean or null). 2 source code, I found Array's flatten() method. Here's an example of using JavaScript to output JSON data to a web page. However, jsonlite makes it pretty straight-forward if you like the default behavior of bringing everything to the top. Let's return to In the example above the most nested callback has access to all The code below makes a request to user. The simplest way (in my mind) to get this to work is to create a computed property that will contain an array of latitudes. Without overwrite set to true, the TRAVIS key would already have been set to a string, thus could not accept the nested DIR element. jeremiahfernandezzzz. JSON stands for JavaScript Object Notation. You need to use some JSON library and JSON. I also posted this question on Stack Overflow. In addition to having plugins for importing rich documents using Tika or from structured data sources using the Data Import Handler , Solr natively supports indexing structured documents in XML, CSV and JSON. PATH mode lets you create wrapper objects and nest complex. [1,2,3,4] Solution using Java as Programming Language Gist with runnable code and tests. For example, I have tweets in JSON format and I would like to apply your code to them since Tweets in JSON have several nested JSON objects. Download source code here : http://chillyfacts. Updated July 29, 2019. coerce JSON arrays containing only primitives into an atomic vector. toString() on the nested array at key "rows" and nested object at key "test1", and they get passed to PHP with the useless values "[object Object]". JavaScript 获取JSON属性值 通过串联起来的点操作符或中括号操作符来访问JSON对象的嵌套属性。 下面是一个嵌套的JSON对象:. The code recursively extracts values out of the object into a flattened dictionary. Extend SQL: As a JSON document database capable of executing JavaScript directly in the database engine, we wanted use JavaScript's programming model as the foundation for our SQL query language. pandas (as pd) and requests have been. Explore Popular Topics Like Government, Sports, Medicine, Fintech, Food, More. How to flatten nested JSON? Hi, (or a JSONFlattener set to read from file) to read the JSON records from the file and flatten the attribute structure. Now, after the very futile example which accompanied the introduction to JavaScript Object Notation in my last post (by the way, I forgot to mention that this is what the fancy acronym stands for, but I'm sure you already knew that), let's go straight to the fun part, and see how we can leverage the flexibility of JSON (and ASP. The nested functions are of the same level. Read the documentation for the code using the JSON to determine the max depth. I feel like I am always helped by giants. Or, if your JSON is a server response, you don't want the resulting Javascript code having to differ between object/array or not object/array. A new array with the sub-array elements concatenated into it. If the element is a simple element, and not an array, you can add it directly to the resulting array. In all these cases, flattening is helpful as it will save you time. Learn to use JSON in your web service. There are all sorts of ways to handle this, but the easiest might be to ask forgiveness instead of permission. JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a light-weight, text-based language for data interchange. FLATTEN is a table function that produces a lateral view of a VARIANT, OBJECT, or ARRAY column. This only makes sense on ordered arrays, and since we're overwriting data, should be used with care. NULL is returned if the json cannot be decoded or if the encoded data is deeper than the recursion limit. After trying to search around for a quick, free, and easy way to convert JSON data into a CSV I came up empty handed. Flatten Nested JSON Objects with Segment and Mammoth Mammoth is a code-free data preparation and discovery platform. Reformatting nested JSON with JavaScript Part 1: and I had additional data which was nested within another array that I want to bring up a level to make it easier. Discussion To get the job done, the solution. Accessing nested json objects is just like accessing nested arrays. Select value from a Json string with nested array. The below example will show you how to parse the nested JSON object and extract all the values in JavaScript. This query returns a row for each element in the array. Allows you to convert a JavaScript object into JSON string. This tutorial covers the declaration of multidimensional arrays, not element referencing, which is explained in the next tutorial. JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a lightweight data-interchange format. The JSON object can arbitrarily contain other JSON objects, arrays, nested arrays, arrays of JSON objects, and so on. To maintain the association between each flattened value and the other fields in the record, the FLATTEN function copies all of the other columns into each new record. Max number of levels(depth of dict) to normalize. I will show how we handle multi-level value extraction, potential inconsistencies in our data (i. JSON is a common data format for message exchange. APPLIES TO: SQL Server Azure SQL Database Azure SQL Data Warehouse Parallel Data Warehouse. Hi, I build a nested JSON object for a list of strings delimited by '-' to build a heirarchy. I am sending json documents to ES with several levels of fields\objects. I have a deep nested json data that i have successfully loaded in a store, using multiple associated models. It is based on a subset of the JavaScript Programming Language Standard ECMA-262 3rd Edition - December 1999. Why ? because it will ensure that every data structure and object is compatible and can work together. LINQ to JSON. (I have to add the tez switch since I did not configure my cluster to use this engine by default). Not anymore! ES2019 introduced a new method that flattens arrays. JSON objects are written in key/value pairs. It will return the target object. You can fully automate the JSON to CSV conversion process with Flexter our free JSON converter. When using JSON with a statically typed language, there is a huge bonus if your structure maps into your types. JSON flatten to nested form fields. jq Manual (development version) For released versions, see jq 1. Parse / flatten nested JSON string in VBA Would it in theory be possible to add javascript that translates json into a csv into VBA? For example - this one:. json-flattener. Spark/Scala: Convert or flatten a JSON having Nested data with Struct/Array to columns (Question) January 9, 2019 Leave a comment Go to comments The following JSON contains some attributes at root level, like ProductNum and unitCount. Consider a JSON file students. Recursive merge/flatten objects in plain old vanilla Javascript. NET--3 Apr 2018. JavaScript Flatten Nested Arrays with Recursion Theodore Anderson. Parsing JSON in groovy evaluator. Next Run Foreach for Jarray. When someone selects the United States, the states dropdown (second drop down) will only get populated with states. simplifyMatrix. data to return "A1. See for example Clarification on Resources Composed of Other Resources in the json:api forum for details on this topic. There is no theoretical limit to how deep JSON objects can be nested, but there usually is a practical limit based on the decoder being used. There are a lot of builtin filters for extracting a particular field of an object, or converting a number to a string, or various other standard. Re: Accessing nested JSON using AJAX Posted 16 April 2018 - 10:35 PM Yes, something like that should be obvious: data is an object with a number of properties, which themselves may be objects or arrays, so knowing the exact structure allows you to get the part(s) you want in this way. Let's say that I have a string representing a json object, and I want to send it using this method. com - Examples, The best For Learn web development Tutorials,Demo with Example! Hi Dear Friends here u can know to Nested List from JSON Example. Yes the specification allows nested complex types in attributes of an individual resource, BUT the complex type can not be another resource. JSON is a lightweight data-interchange format. It automates the conversion of JSON to a database, text, or Hadoop. map after converting to hash & hash. I am having a hard time to get this use case to work: I need to iterate through a JSON nested structrure and check some fields to populate an infotable. nest functionality to produce these groupings with a minimal amount of code. Here is the snippet using recursive function to attain that. Even though JSON starts with the word Javascript, it's actually just a format, and can be read by any language. getRxConnection(dbClient). Flattening JSON in JSON. Unfortunately this was a bug that was in flatten all along that ended up being exposed when we fixed another system-wide issue with supporting large lists and very wide strings. I will show how we handle multi-level value extraction, potential inconsistencies in our data (i. Because it is (almost a subset of) JavaScript notation, JSON can often be used in JavaScript programs without any need for parsing or serializing. NET objects into their JSON equivalent and back again by mapping the. Here I am going to discuss about converting multiple nested JSON which might or might not contain similar elements to CSV for usage with tools like excel or open office calc. parse() accepts an additon argument, it is called on each key-value pair. json") But I cannot wrap my head around how to work with the nested dataframes this generates. Microsoft offers JavascriptSerializer as part of their support for JSON serialization which is a high level serializer that implements IDictionary. The nested JSON is not breaking up properly to show properly in excel I think my JavaScript code must be off just a little bit. JSON (JavaScript Object Notation), specified by RFC 7159 (which obsoletes RFC 4627) and by ECMA-404, is a lightweight data interchange format inspired by JavaScript object literal syntax (although it is not a strict subset of JavaScript 1). All it's support/helper functions are nested within. Here, in this article I’ll show you how to convert JSON data to an HTML table dynamically using JavaScript. Most of the other examples I have seen only show very simple json with a top level object and a few strings. The goal was to read and process entire JSON data event including the array and the nested values using Microsoft Azure Stream Analytics service. There is a. val dwdJson = spark. AFAIK you cannot have a dash in a C# property name. What we’re going to do is display the thumbnails of the latest 16 photos, which will link to the medium-sized display of the image. The ability to explode nested lists into rows in a very easy way (see the Notebook below) Speed! Following is an example Databricks Notebook (Python) demonstrating the above claims. Using pandas and json_normalize to flatten nested JSON API response I have a deeply nested JSON that I am trying to turn into a Pandas Dataframe using json_normalize. To flatten the JSON document, run the following script:. Inside ForEach Use Deserealise Json Activity and store the value as Jvalue. NET object property names to the JSON property names and copies the values for you. It's even in the name - JSON stands for "JavaScript Object Notation". Azure DocumentDB's SQL query language is rooted in the JavaScript's type system, expression evaluation and function invocation. For example, you can use API-powered data feeds from operational systems to create data products. 1 Here you can experiment with the stock Jolt Transforms without having to download and run the Java code. I asked myself how I could do that using PHP. Questions: I have a situation where multiple Singles are nested together. It was always complicated to flatten an array in #JavaScript. When you're working with a JSON response to an XHR, jQuery takes care of this task for you, but it's crucial to understand the difference between the JSON representation of an object. map(connection -> RxConverter. JavaScript preprocessors can help make authoring JavaScript easier and more convenient. Grouping data is an important capability to have when doing data analysis. I’ve been working on a commercial multi-page website with a bunch of JavaScript under the hood, and Parcel is working out very well for me. The JsonSerializer converts. The standard library module json provides functionality to work in JSON. Let's say that I have a string representing a json object, and I want to send it using this method. BigQuery supports loading and exporting nested and repeated data in the form of JSON and Avro files. Javascript & C# Programming Projects for $10 - $30. how to flatten the json data. Even though it has nothing to do with this post, this experience reminded me of Google Scholar. On the Web Stack JSON. 1 requires that the processing mode be explicitly set to json-ld-1. Here is the expected result. child field names on the FME features. Often times, you will want to break apart the data by a categorical variable and look at statistics or details for each group. Unlike pickle, JSON has the benefit of having implementations in many languages (especially JavaScript), making it suitable for inter-application communication. com is a collection of JSON related content, links, and general awesomeness hand selected by the good people of the Web. This has saved me a lot of time. Laurie Barth. How to: Deserialization of nested JSON. How can I make a Javascript array using the JSON information below, then map it to a drop down of countries and states (nested JSON?).